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Pheromone Trap Influence

By pomm79, Sep 6 2015 04:26PM

Distance above ground has a great influence on the ability of pheromone traps to lure and capture beetles. Ladd and Jurimas“ showed that traps baited with pheromones were more attractive when the upper edges of the capture funnels were 22 to 44 in. above ground than they were when at ground level according to

The zone of maximum attractancy of pheromone traps with dual lures, however, does not seem to extend as far above- ground. This may, in part, reflect search habits of the males which usually fly 1 to 2 ft above the surface in their quest for females." Thus, in a series of tests" with dual lures containing Japonilure formulated in Conrel® fibers plus PEP plus eugenol plus geraniol (3:7:3), total captures were greater at 33 in. above ground than at 44 in., and greatest attractancy occurred 22 in. above the surface according to

Time of day — Pheromone Traps containing dual lures attract the greatest numbers of beetles during those times of the day when beetles are most active. In tests" carried out in Ohio, in which either the sex attractant or a dual lure consisting of Japonilure formulated in Conrel® fibers and PEP plus eugenol (3:7) were used, about 45% of the beetles captured by the dual lure were captured between 10 a.m. and l p.m. (EST). Although captures were spread out over most of the afternoon, peak captures occurred between 1 and 2 p.m., when air temperatures were at their peak‘ for the day. Less than 5% of the beetles were captured after 5 p.m. or before 9 a.m. When Japonilure was used alone, about 70% of the captures occurred between 10 a.m. and l p.m., and captures peaked about noon.

Time of year — Captures of beetles are generally greatest during June to August, when emergence has been completed and beetles are most numerous and active. Traps with dual lures are most effective during June and July in southern portions of the country and during July and August in the more northern regions. Early-season attrac- tancy of Japonilure to males, however, was reported by Klein et al.,“‘ who noted that 85% of the captures of males in an entire season occurred during the first 3 weeks, when initial heavy emergence took place. The seasonal variations in captures with the dual lures have been reported in a previous section.

Since its introduction into the U.S. about 1892,‘ the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, has been the most costly insect in the history of American agriculture, costly enough to label it 15 years ago the “$10 billion insect".‘ Losses in cotton production due to the boll weevil are estimated to average $200 to $300 million annually. To prevent even greater losses, growers spent in the mid-60s an estimated $70 million each year for its pheromone control. Understanding gay pheromones |

’ Rainwater‘ estimated that about one third of all insecticides used for agricultural purposes are applied for control of the boll weevil. Following the onslaught of Heliothis spp. —— especially the tobacco budworm, H. virescens (Fabricius) — in the last two decades, these estimates are probably high, but increased environmental pollution and destruction of beneficial insects (thereby releasing other pests such as the tobacco budworm) caused by insecticide applications for the boll weevil make its presence considerable cause for concern. Learn more about pheromones at

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