By pomm79, Aug 29 2015 01:35AM
So far, the mass-trapping pheromone program appears to have succesfully controlled RBLR under moderate population pressure. Because of its wide host range and relative abundance in nature, RBLR provides a rather stringent test control technique. A species restricted to apple and/or a narrow range of host plants or a species that occurs rather sparsely would perhaps be more amenable to this type of control. Codling moth falls into this pheromone attraction category. While being one of the universally important orchard pests, it occurs in relatively low numbers in our area because of a very successful chemical control program in the past. Since population pressure is generally very low in commercial orchards, the mass-trapping technique should fit this species and research is underway to determine if Codling moth can be controlled by this method. Learn about the pheromones in humans.
Pheromone Mating inhibition: Our experience with this application of pheromones is limit with RBLR in grape vineyards has produced some encouraging results (Taschenberg, Two adjacent vineyards near Fredonia, control in 1971, under relatively high population pressure (ca 0.2 ha) yielded 2900 and 2400 male moths, respectively. Previous experience in apple orchards indicates this to be excessive population pressure for successful mass-trapping, and, in fact, 5~6% berry injury was recorded. In 1972 mating inhibi- tion was tried in Block A and Block B was maintained as a check. Pheromone release stations, discharging > 100 pg/hr, were distributed throughout Block A on a 13.4 x 7.9m spacing (91 release points/ha). Both blocks were monitored with synthetic pheromone traps releasing ca 5.0 pg/hr and with live-female traps. One fault in the experimental design was the close proximity of the two blocks, separat- ed only by a 12 m service lane, but this was dictated by the limited availability of vineyards for the experiment. Only six males were captured by the monitoring traps in Block A while Block B yielded 429. Although this difference is highly significant, moth catch in Block B was probably affected by the pheromone release in Block A. lt is very likely that over the short distance separating the two blocks some male inhibition occurred in Block B also. Fruit injury was 3.8% in Block A and 9.2% in Block B, but some of the damage in both blocks may be due to gravid females flying in from outside the area. Future work with mating inhibition is planned for both RBLR and codling s utilize the same basic attractant as moth. It is known that other leafroller specie complex of tortricid pests could be does RBLR and the possibility exists that a inhibited by release of ‘RiBLuRe’ alone. At this stage it appears that control of multiple species of orchard pests by pheromones may be feasible. If so, the need for several chemical pesticide applications during part of the growing season can be alleviated. Learn about how pheromones work
Early biological observations (Shorey 1964, indicated that T. ni has a sophisticated, noctural premating communication-system based primarily on the female sex pheromone.
The pheromone guides the male to the vicinity of the female and activates his copulatory behavior.
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