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Survey Pheromones

By pomm79, Aug 28 2015 01:13AM

Pheromones offer the ability to communicate. Pheromones clearly fit into this concept. It was also proposed at an early stage that permeation of the atmosphere with pheromones coul prevent reproduction and colonization (Babson I963; Beroza and Jacobson 1963 Similarly, many early predictions and attempts were made to trap out an insect population using natural sources or extracts of pheromones (for a review see Jacob son 1972; for theoretical basis see Knipling and McGuire 1966). In the late 1960 synthetic pheromones became increasingly more available and with their age began the true test of the early predictions according to

21.2 Survey Pheromones

Entomologists have always wanted to understand the reasons why a part insect appeared at a certain time or in a given area since early detection of an in pest was often the key to effective management. Such information was, how difficult to obtain and was based on data from many sources (e.g. emergence ca light traps, bait pails, field collections, etc.). When pheromones and attractants . discovered one obvious application was the possibility often incorporating these trials into some type of survey or detection device, thus eliminating many of earlier, time-consuming methods. In many instances the natural source of pheromone, the virgin (attractive) female, was, and still is being used effectively (B and Hathaway I966; Jacobson 1972 for review). Learn more at

In general, it has been found that a particular pheromone can be utilized i survey device very soon after its isolation, identification and synthesis. This 4 seem rather surprising in view of the many factors involved and their interdep dence. However, after one, or at the most two, years of field evaluation m pheromones can be put into practical application as part of a survey program. Learn about Athena 10x Pheromones |


In considering survey and detection programs it must be kept in mind that pheromones are only one part of a device which must capture and retain the insect; that its presence can be recorded. In order to be maximally effective, the t should simulate the natural attractive source as closely as possible or supersede attractiveness. Factors such as trap design, chemical attractiveness of the phermone and rate of pheromone release must be considered before a reliable trap is obtained. Learn about pheromones at and

The ingenuity, simplicity and extent of insect trap designs can be readily preciated by examining the files of the United States Patent Office on insect trap. The trap not only has to retain the insect, but its particular design may be vitally important for success, since, in the final approach to the pheromone source, insect may respond to cues other than chemical (Shorey 1970). Vision is import in attracting the gypsy moth (Doane 1968) and the cabbage looper (Shorey av Gaston I970) and without a doubt the size, shape and color of a trap can affect the pheromones.

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