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The Sex Pheromone

By pomm79, Sep 5 2015 02:23AM

For more than 80 years, the sex pheromone of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar (L.)) has been used in traps for survey and detection, first with live virgin females and then using female extracts as the bait. This early work was summarized by Collins and Potts.‘ Bierl et a1.’ identified the pheromone as cis-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane, and named the compound “disparlure”. lwaki et a1.’ later demonstrated that disparlure from the female moth was only one of two possible enantiomers with the 7R,8S isomer called (+ )-disparlure. Learn more at https://jail6letter.wordpress.com/2015/12/19/pheromone-stages/


For many years, spread of the gypsy moth was prevented through the use of pheromone-baited traps to determine the whereabouts of the moth followed by insecticide treatment where necessary. Halting of DDT use in this program allowed gypsy moth spread to resume, although spread was prevented before use of DDT by manual applications of creosote and other means. This program was highly effective according to http://sundowndivers.org/?p=82 and http://thongchaimedical.org/?p=176

We have better tools now and should be able to do the job more efficiently. Schwalbe‘ has summarized the current recommended procedures for using pheromone traps to detect and delineate populations of the gypsy moth. Recent work with disparlure for monitoring gypsy moth populations has been done in Czechoslovakia,5 the U.S.S.R.," and the US.’ Since the use of pheromone traps for population detection and delineation is outside the scope of this chapter, the reader is referred to several recent reviews dealing with this subject. Check out pheromone reviews | Pheromones-4u.com


A. General


Reduction of insect populations through mass trapping with pheromone-baited traps has been attempted on a number of occasions. Sometimes economic levels of pheromone control have been attained; often they have not. Mass trapping can take the form of trapping out the entire population, as in mass trapping of smaller European elm bark beetles, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham),""5 trapping of females as well as males with a male- produced sex pheromone, as with the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, or trapping of males only with a female-produced sex pheromone. In the reduction of insect populations by trapping males, known as the male annihilation method, enough males must be removed to prevent a significant portion of the female population from being mated.


Pheromones Mass Trapping of Lepidoptera Other Than Gypsy Moth


Some very preliminary efforts with male trapping were made to suppress mating of Spodoptera Iitura (F.)" and the lesser peach tree borer, Synanthedon pict1'pes(Grote and Robinson)?‘-23 Early attempts to control the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossy- piella (Saunders), by male trapping were disappointing;’‘‘'“ however, it was recently reported that pink bollworm populations were successfully suppressed over a 3-year period by a large, commercial-scale mass-trapping program in Arizona.”


With the exception of the gypsy moth, by far the most work on pheromone trapping for male annihilation has been done with leafroller moths of the families Olethrcutidae and Tortricidae. Work on mass trapping of male red-banded leafrollers


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